It is a highly dangerous and demanding combat service; in World War II, military doctors concluded that even physically unwounded soldiers were psychologically worn out after about 200 days of combat. Additionally, soldiers can be rested and general readiness should improve. Infantry armour had to compromise between protection and coverage, as a full suit of attack-proof armour would be too heavy to wear in combat. Thus tight formations heightened advantages of heavy arms, and gave greater local numbers in melee. Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment ⁕A battalion-equivalent, e.g. Empires formed around their military. Children in schools are no longer regimented as they used to be. Also known as foot soldiers or infantrymen, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. [21][22], Infantrymen often carry secondary or back-up weapons, sometimes called a sidearm or ancillary weapons in modern terminology, either issued officially as an addition to the soldier's standard arms, or acquired unofficially by any other means as an individual preference. The word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian (also Spanish) infanteria (foot soldiers too inexperienced for cavalry), from Latin īnfāns (without speech, newborn, foolish), from which English also gets infant. In the Western world, from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages (c. 8th century BC to 15th century AD), infantry are categorised as either heavy infantry or light infantry. [10] Though the main force of the army, these forces were usually kept small due to their cost of training and upkeep, and might be supplemented by local short-term mass-conscript forces using the older irregular infantry weapons and tactics; this remained a common practice almost up to modern times.[11]. tries. They may also deploy anti-personnel mines, booby traps, incendiary or explosive devices defensively before combat. The 369th Infantry is known for being the first African-American regiment to serve with the American Expeditionary Force during World War I. Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry, even though they never had horses, to emphasise their combat mobility. They can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, and infantry fighting vehicles. Similar hierarchical organizations have been noted in other ancient armies, typically with approximately 10 to 100 to 1,000 ratios (even where base 10 was not common), similar to modern sections (squads), companies, and regiments.[25]. In 1967 then Governor of Arizona Jack Williams signed into law that 3 December would be "Bushmaster Day" in the State of Arizona in honor of the regiment's service. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, and typically bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress. This started slowly, first with crossbowmen, then hand cannoneers and arquebusiers, each with increasing effectiveness, marking the beginning of early modern warfare, when firearms rendered the use of heavy infantry obsolete. The most basic is personal armour. Soldiers armed and trained to fight on foot: The general ordered his infantry to attack. The needs of the infantryman to maintain fitness and effectiveness must be constantly balanced against being overburdened. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to primarily firearms. In all, this can reach 25–45 kg (60–100 lb) for each soldier on the march. Coats of arms of U.S. infantry regiments are heraldic emblems associated with infantry regiments in the US Army. Define Infantry Regiment. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, and King's Royal Hussars. Regiment, in most armies, a body of troops headed by a colonel and organized for tactical control into companies, battalions, or squadrons. Therefore, they need the protection of the infantry, particularly when on the move. a military unit of ground forces: He sent three regiments into battle. These have become mostly only ceremonial since the decline of close combat military tactics. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers (APCs), providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. The 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment (505th PIR) is one of four infantry regiments of the 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army. ... Less than a battalion-equivalent, e.g. The introduction of musketeers using bayonets in the mid 17th century began replacement of the pike with the infantry square replacing the pike square.[15]. [21] The pilum was a javelin of the Roman legionaries threw just before drawing their primary weapon, the gladius (short sword), and closing with the enemy line.[24]. a branch of an army composed of such soldiers. The infantry is undergoing the last throes of the destruction of its regimental system, having found itself squeezed into 34 conventional regular infantry battalions plus three regular battalions of the Parachute Regiment. Modern infantrymen now treat the bayonet as a backup weapon, but may also have handguns or pistols. Attacks are often feared by the infantry conducting them because of the high number of casualties suffered while advancing to close with and destroy the enemy while under enemy fire. This can be avoided by having shield-armed soldiers stand close together, side-by-side, each protecting both themselves and their immediate comrades, presenting a solid shield wall to the enemy. Meaning of Regiment. Soldiers were grouped into units of 50, which were in turn grouped into larger units of 250, then 1,000, and finally into units of up to 5,000 – the largest independent command. [3][4] Infantry can more easily recognise, adapt and respond to local conditions, weather, and changing enemy weapons or tactics. Some assignments for infantry units involve deployment behind the front, although patrol and security operations are usually maintained in case of enemy infiltration. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. How to use regiment in a sentence. This also increased their shock combat effect; individual opponents saw themselves literally lined-up against several heavy infantryman each, with seemingly no chance of defeating all of them. They also have a number of other, specialist roles. The infantry is often given this assignment because of the physical quantity of strong men within the unit, although it can lessen a unit's morale and limit the unit's ability to maintain readiness and perform other missions. Infantrymen are defined by their primary arms – the personal weapons and body armour for their own individual use. [14], Dense formations are vulnerable to ranged weapons. The 1st Battalion, 1st Infantry is assigned as support to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and to furnish the enlisted garrison for the academy and the Stewart Army Subpost. The antiquity saw everything from the well-trained and motivated citizen armies of Greek and Rome, the tribal host assembled from farmers and hunters with only passing acquaintance with warfare and masses of lightly armed and ill-trained militia put up as a last ditch effort. Towards the end of Middle Ages, this began to change, where more professional and better trained light infantry could be effective against knights, such as the English longbowmen in the Hundred Years' War. All of these protective measures add to the weight an infantryman must carry, and may decrease combat efficiency. Regiment definition is - a military unit consisting usually of a number of battalions. Retention of discipline and cohesion throughout the attack is paramount to success. This gives the ambushing infantrymen the combat advantage of surprise, concealment and superior firing positions, and causes confusion. Zachary Taylor, later the twelfth President of the United States, was a commander of the unit. When combat is expected, infantry typically switch to "packing light", meaning reducing their equipment to weapons, ammo, and bare essentials, and leaving the rest with their transport or baggage train, at camp or rally point, in temporary hidden caches, or even (in emergencies) discarding whatever may slow them down. Disease epidemics, frostbite, heat stroke, trench foot, insect and wild animal bites are common along with stress disorders and these have sometimes caused more casualties than enemy action. Infantry are the most easily delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport; they can also be inserted directly into combat by amphibious landing, or for air assault by parachute (airborne infantry) or helicopter (airmobile infantry). One of the most valuable pieces of gear is the entrenching tool—basically a folding spade—which can be employed not only to dig important defences, but also in a variety of other daily tasks, and even sometimes as a weapon. Full-scale attacks and defensive efforts are occasional, but patrols are constant. Care must be taken to differentiate innocent civilians who often hide and support the enemy from the non-uniformed armed enemy forces. Regiment definition, a unit of ground forces, consisting of two or more battalions or battle groups, a headquarters unit, and certain supporting units. Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield ("boots on the ground");[2] this is vital for engaging and infiltrating enemy positions, holding and defending ground (any military objectives), securing battlefield victories, maintaining military area control and security both at and behind the front lines, for capturing ordnance or materiel, taking prisoners, and military occupation. This encourages searching for ingenious combinations of effective, rugged, serviceable and adaptable, yet light, compact, and handy infantry equipment. Poor climate conditions adds misery to this already demanding existence. Beginning with the development the first regular military forces, close-combat regular infantry fought less as unorganised groups of individuals and more in coordinated units, maintaining a defined tactical formation during combat, for increased battlefield effectiveness; such infantry formations and the arms they used developed together, starting with the spear and the shield. In October 1983, the 1st Battalion, 508th Infantry Regiment, also deployed to Grenada in Operation Urgent Fury. A regiment is a military unit. For other uses of "foot soldier", see, Marius' reforms of the Roman army included making each man responsible for carrying his own supplies, weapons and several days' worth of ration. Modern militaries are struggling to balance the value of personal body protection versus the weight burden and ability to function under such weight. Communications gear has become a necessity, as it allows effective command of infantry units over greater distances, and communication with artillery and other support units. The 21 st Infantry Regiment was originally constituted in May 1861, as the 2nd Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment and organized in May 1862 at Fort Hamilton, N.Y. By the time of the musket, the dominance of firepower shifted militaries away from any close combat, and use of armour decreased, until infantry typically went without any armour. The definition of an infantry is a unit of soldiers who move and fight on foot. 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